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  1. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2015.
  2. Translational research focus of NIDA organizational shift [news release]. Rockville MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; October 1, 2015. Accessed September 24, 2015.
  3. U.S. Department of Justice National Drug Intelligence Center. National Drug Threat Assessment 2011. Published August 2011. Accessed September 24, 2015.
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  9. Wheeler E, Jones TS, Gilbert MK, Davidson PJ. Opioid overdose prevention programs providing naloxone to laypersons – United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(23):631-635.
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  12. Spoth R, Trudeau L, Shin C, et al. Longitudinal effects of universal preventive intervention on prescription drug misuse: three randomized controlled trials with late adolescents and young adults. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(4):665-672.
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  26. Mueller SR, Walley AY, Calcaterra SL, Glanz JM, Binswanger IA. A review of opioid overdose prevention and naloxone prescribing: implications for translating community programming into clinical practice. Subst Abus. 2015;36(2):240-253.
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  34. Leventhal AM, Strong DR, Kirkpatrick MG, et al. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence. JAMA. 2015;314(7):700-707.
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  36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-associated behaviors among injecting-drug users – 23 Cities, United States, May 2005-February 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(13):329-332.
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  39. Ward JW, Mermin JH. Simple, effective, but out of reach? Public health implications of HCV drugs. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(27):2678-2680.
  40. Shurtleff D, Sasek C, Kautz M. NIDA 40th anniversary issue. Neuropharmacology. 2014;76(B):195-600.
  41. Johnson MB, Wang PP, Atabay KD, et al. Single-cell analysis reveals transcriptional heterogeneity of neural progenitors in human cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2015;18(5):637-646.
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  43. Shin J, Ming G, Song H. Decoding neural transcriptomes and epigenomes via high-throughput sequencing. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17(11):1463-1475.
  44. Ferguson SM, Neumaier JF. Grateful DREADDs: Engineered receptors reveal how neural circuits regulate behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37(1):296-297.
  45. Mahler SV, Vazey EM, Beckley JT, et al. Designer receptors show role for ventral pallidum input to ventral tegmental area in cocaine seeking. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17(4):577-585.
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  47. Volkow ND, Frieden TR, Hyde PS, Cha SS. Medication-assisted therapies—tackling the opioid-overdose epidemic. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(22):2063-2066.
  48. Genberg BL, Gange SJ, Go VF, Celentano DD, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. Trajectories of injection drug use over 20 years (1988-2008) in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(7):829-836.
  49. Kertesz SG, Khodneva Y, Richman J, et al. Trajectories of drug use and mortality outcomes among adults followed over 18 years. J Gen Intern Med. 2012;27(7):808-816.
  50. Goldman D, Oroszi G, Ducci F. The genetics of addictions: uncovering the genes. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6(7):521-532.
  51. Strike C, Rudzinski K, Patterson J, Millson M. Frequent food insecurity among injection drug users: correlates and concerns. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1058.
  52. Conroy DA, Arnedt JT. Sleep and substance use disorders: an update. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2014;16(10):487.
  53. Chen Y, Kalichman SC. Synergistic effects of food insecurity and drug use on medication adherence among people living with HIV infection. J Behav Med. 2015;38(3):397-406.
  54. Murphy A, Taylor E, Elliott R. The detrimental effects of emotional process dysregulation on decision-making in substance dependence. Front Integr Neurosci. 2012;6:101.
  55. Bernstein J, Bernstein E, Belanoff C, et al. The association of injury with substance use disorder among women of reproductive age: an opportunity to address a major contributor to recurrent preventable emergency department visits? Acad Emerg Med. 2014;21(12):1459-1468.
  56. Vinson DC. Marijuana and other illicit drug use and the risk of injury: a case-control study. Mo Med. 2006;103(2):152-156.
  57. Choo EK, Benz M, Rybarczyk M, et al. The intersecting roles of violence, gender, and substance use in the emergency department: a research agenda. Acad Emerg Med. 2014;21(12):1447-1452.
  58. Pickard H, Fazel S. Substance abuse as a risk factor for violence in mental illness: some implications for forensic psychiatric practice and clinical ethics. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26(4):349-354.
  59. King KM, Meehan BT, Trim RS, Chassin L. Marker or mediator? The effects of adolescent substance use on young adult educational attainment. Addiction. 2006;101(12):1730-1740.
  60. Aubry T, Klodawsky F, Coulombe D. Comparing the housing trajectories of different classes within a diverse homeless population. Am J Community Psychol. 2012;49(1-2):142-155.
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  62. Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Accessed September 24, 2015.
  63. Henkel D. Unemployment and substance use: a review of the literature (1990-2010). Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011;4(1):4-27.
  64. Boyden ES, Zhang F, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Deisseroth K. Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8(9):1263-1268.
  65. Grovit-Ferbas K, Harris-White ME. Thinking about HIV: the intersection of virus, neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. Immunol Res. 2010;48(1-3):40-58.
  66. Anand P, Springer SA, Copenhaver MM, Altice FL. Neurocognitive impairment and HIV risk factors: a reciprocal relationship. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(6):1213-1226.
  67. Fois AF, Brew BJ. The Potential of the CNS as a Reservoir for HIV-1 Infection: Implications for HIV Eradication. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2015;12(2):299-303.
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  70. Faggiano F, Minozzi S, Versino E, Buscemi D. Universal school-based prevention for illicit drug use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;12:CD003020.
  71. Spoth R, Trudeau L, Shin C, Redmond C. Long-term effects of universal preventive interventions on prescription drug misuse. Addict Abingdon Engl. 2008;103(7):1160-1168.
  72. Acion L, Ramirez MR, Jorge RE, Arndt S. Increased risk of alcohol and drug use among children from deployed military families: Substance use among military children. Addiction. 2013;108(8):1418-1425.
  73. Vassoler FM, Byrnes EM, Pierce RC. The impact of exposure to addictive drugs on future generations: Physiological and behavioral effects. Neuropharmacology. 2014;76:269-275.
  74. Yohn NL, Bartolomei MS, Blendy JA. Multigenerational and transgenerational inheritance of drug exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2015;118(1-2):21-33.
  75. Marschall-Lévesque S, Castellanos-Ryan N, Vitaro F, Séguin JR. Moderators of the association between peer and target adolescent substance use. Addict Behav. 2014;39(1):48-70.
  76. Leve LD, Fisher PA, Chamberlain P. Multidimensional treatment foster care as a preventive intervention to promote resiliency among youth in the child welfare system. J Pers. 2009;77(6):1869-1902.
  77. Bruce J, Fisher PA, Pears KC, Levine S. Morning cortisol Levels in preschool-aged foster children: differential effects of maltreatment type. Dev Psychobiol. 2009;51(1):14-23.
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